Ethanol : Ethyl Alcohol or Grain Alcohol, CH3-CH2OH
A clear, colorless flammable oxygenated hydrocarbon with a boiling point of 173.5 degrees Fahrenheit in the anhydrous state. However it readily forms a binary azetrope with water, with a boiling point of 172.67 degrees Fahrenheit at a composition of 95.57 percent by weight ethanol. It is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate (maximum 10 percent concentration). Ethanol can be used in higher concentrations (E85) in vehicles designed for its use. Ethanol is typically produced chemically from ethylene, or biologically from fermentation of various sugars from carbohydrates found in agricultural crops and cellulosic residues from crops or wood. The lower heating value, equal to 76,000 Btu per gallon, is assumed for estimates in this report.